Hu, N., T. D. Ngo and E. B. Clark. Distribution of blood flow between embryo and vitelline bed in the stage 18, 21 and 24 chick embryo. Cardiovascular Research. 31:131, 1996.

Objective: We defined the distribution of blood flow between the embryo and the extraembryonic vascular bed as an initial step in understanding the control of flow distribution in the early developing heart. Methods: Dorsal aortic blood flow of stage 18, 21, and 24 chick embryo (n greater than or equal to 7 at each stage) was measured with a 20 MHz pulsed-Doppler velocity meter. Analog waveforms were digitally sampled at 500 Hz. 1-5 x 10(3) yellow microspheres in saline suspension were injected into the vitelline vein. The embryo and the extraembryonic vascular bed were harvested and separated from each other. The dye on the microspheres from each portion was extracted and extrapolated from the standard curve of the absorbance of dye concentrations per number of microspheres quantified by spectrophotometry. Blood flow was calculated from the integral of blood velocity and aortic cross-sectional area multiplied by the fraction distribution of microspheres in the embryo and extraembryonic vascular bed. Data were presented as mean +/- standard error of the mean. Results: The proportion distribution of microspheres between embryo and extraembryonic vascular bed shifted from 18.7 +/- 2.5 vs. 81.3 +/- 2.5% at stage 18, 25.1 +/- 3.0 vs, 74.9 +/- 3.0% at stage 21, and 34.2 +/- 2.4 vs. 65.8 +/- 2.4% at stage 24. Indices of blood flow normalized to wet weight (mean +/- 95% confidence interval) were similar between the embryo and the extraembryonic vascular bed, but increased throughout the stages. Conclusion: During embryogenesis, blood flow per unit mass is evenly distributed between the metabolically active embryo and the extraembryonic vascular bed. [References: 22].