Barnes, M. D., N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey. CCD based approach to high-precision size and refractive index determination of levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction. Review Of Scientific Instruments. 68:2287-2291, 1997.
We describe a fast and convenient method of high precision size and refractive index determination of electrodynamically levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction. The diffraction data were obtained with a 16-bit, unintensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and converted into angle-resolved elastic scattering intensity patterns by means of a carefully determined set of transformation parameters. The angular scattering patterns were analyzed without any a priori estimate of the droplet size and only a nominal estimate (approximate to 2%) of the refractive index. Experimental angular scattering patterns were fit to calculated patterns from Mie theory using a graded step-size and scaling algorithm and optimized with respect to both droplet diameter and refractive index (real part only) with a precision of less than or equal to 3 parts in 10(4) and 1 part in 10(3), respectively. Potential application to quantitative fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, as well as mixture analysis in microdroplets is discussed. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.