Yamamoto, N., T. Kohmoto, A. G. Gu, C. DeRosa, C. R. Smith and D. Burkhoff. Angiogenesis is enhanced in ischemic canine myocardium by transmyocardial laser revascularization. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY. 31:1426-1433, 1998.

Objectives. This study sought to test whether transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) stimulates angiogenesis in an animal model of chronic ischemia.
Background. TMLR relieves angina and may also improve blood how in patients who are not candidates for traditional therapies. The mechanisms of these benefits are not fully defined.
Methods. Ischemia was created in 14 dogs by proximal left anterior descending coronary ameroid constrictors. TMLR was performed in the anterior wall (similar to 1 channel/cm(2)) of seven dogs; the remaining dogs served as the ischemic control group, Myo cardial blood flow was measured (colored microspheres) at rest and during chemical stress (adenosine) in the acute setting and after 2 months.
Results. TMLR did not influence blood flow in the acute setting. After 2 months, resting blood flow increased comparably in the anterior wall in both groups to similar to 80% of normal. However, the TMLR treated dogs demonstrated an similar to 40% increase in blood flow capacity during stress in the ischemic territory compared with untreated dogs (left anterior descending coronary artery/left circumflex coronary artery flow 0.53 +/- 0.16 in the control group vs. 0.73 +/- 0.08 in TMLR animals, p < 0.05). Vascular proliferation, assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen positivity in endothelial and smooth muscle cells was about four times greater in the TMLR group than in the control group (p < 0.001), The density of vessels with at least one smooth muscle cell layer was similar to 1.4 times greater in the myocardium surrounding the TMLR channel remnants than in control ischemic tissue (p ( 0.001).
Conclusions. In this canine model of chronic ischemia, TMLR significantly enhances angiogenesis evidenced by the increased number of vessels lined with smooth muscle cells, markedly increased vascular proliferation and increased blood flow capacity during stress.