Forrester, K., M. Doschak and R. Bray. In vivo comparison of scanning technique and wavelength in laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in knee ligaments of adult rabbits. MEDICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING & COMPUTING. 35:581-586, 1997.

At present, there are only two laser Doppler perfusion imaging systems (LDIs) manufactured for medical applications: a 'stepwise' and a 'continuous' scanning LDI. The stepwise scanning LDI has previously been investigated and compared with coloured microsphere determined standardised flow. The continuous scanning LDI is investigated and compared with the stepwise scanning LDI for its ability to measure in vivo, hypoaemic, ligament tissue blood flow changes. The continuous scanning system was supplied with two lasers, red and near infrared (NIR), allowing for additional assessment of the effect of wavelength on imaging ligament perfusion. Perfusion images were obtained from surgically exposed rabbit medial collateral ligaments (MCL). Continuous and stepwise LDI scans were compared using correlation and linear regression analysis of image averages and standard deviations. Using the same method of analysis, LDI measurements using red and NIR lasers indicated a high degree of correlation, at least over the ranges of perfusion assessed, indicating that red and NIR lasers measure similar regions of flow in the rabbit MCL. These experiments confirm that both LDI techniques provide a valid in vivo measure of dynamic changes in connective tissue perfusion and could have significant impact on the understanding and treatment of joint injury and arthritis.