McCulloch, A. D., D. Sung, J. M. Wilson, R. S. Pavelec and J. H. Omens. Flow-function relations during graded coronary occlusions in the dog: effects of transmural location and segment orientation. CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH. 37:636-645, 1998.

Objective: The sensitive relationship between regional myocardial perfusion and local systolic deformation during acute myocardial ischemia is not independent of the transmural location or segment orientation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fiber orientation and transmural location on the relationships between regional myocardial flow and three-dimensional systolic wall strain during graded coronary artery occlusions, Methods: Transmural distributions of three-dimensional strain (by biplane radiography of implanted radiopaque markers) and myocardial blood flows (using fluorescent microspheres) were measured in the ischemic region during graded left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusions in 12 anesthetized dogs. Results: Occlusion of the coronary artery did not significantly alter mean heart rate or end-systolic pressure. As flow decreased during graded occlusions, ischemia significantly changed systolic circumferential, longitudinal, radial, fiber and cross-fiber strains (p < 0.004). There was a significant effect of transmural position on circumferential, cross-fiber and radial strains, but not on fiber or longitudinal strains. Ischemia significantly altered all normal strains: circumferential, longitudinal, fiber, cross-fiber and radial. There was a strong interaction effect between transmural location and blood flow for circumferential, cross-fiber and radial strains, but not fiber or longitudinal strains. Conclusion: During non-transmural ischemia, there is evidence of strong transmural tethering in the cross-fiber direction, whereas the fiber-strain flow relation is independent of transmural position. Thus, whether the relationship between local myocardial bloodflow and systolic strain during acute ischemia is dependent on transmural location, depends on segment orientation.