Mazhari, R., J. H. Omens, L. K. Waldman and A. D. McCulloch. Regional myocardial perfusion and mechanics: A model-based method of analysis. ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING. 26:743-755, 1998.
A new parametric model-based method has been developed that allows epicardial strain distributions to be computed on the left ventricular free wall in normal and ischemic myocardium and integrated with the regional distributions of anatomic and physiological measurements so that underlying relationships can be explored. An array of radiopaque markers was sewn on the anterior wall of the left ventricle (LV) in three anesthetized open-chest canines, and their positions were recorded using biplane video fluoroscopy before and 2 min after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the LV and epicardial fiber angles were measured post-mortem using a 3D probe. A prolate spheroidal finite element model was fitted to the epicardial surface points (with <0.2 mm accuracy) and fiber angles (<5 degrees error). Regional myocardial blood flows (MBFs) were measured using fluorescent microspheres and fitted into the model (<0.3 ml min(-1) g(-1) error). Epicardial fiber and cross-fiber strain distributions were computed by allowing the model to deform from end-diastole to end-systole according to the recorded motion of the surface markers. Systolic fiber strain varied from -0.05 to 0.01 within the region of the markers during baseline, and regional MBF varied from 1.5 to 2.0 ml min(-1) g(-1). During 2 min ischemia, regional MBF was less than 0.3 ml min(-1) g(-1) in the ischemic region and 1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1) in the nonischemic region, and fiber strain ranged from 0.05 in the central ischemic zone to - 0.025 in the remote nonischemic tissue. This analysis revealed a zone of impaired fiber shortening extending into the normally perfused myocardium that was significantly wider at the base than the apex. A validation analysis showed that a regularizing function can be optimized to minimize both fitting errors and numerical oscillations in the computed strain fields. (C) 1998 Biomedical Engineering Society. [S0090-6964(98)01505-7].