Tanabe, T., T. Iwamoto, O. Iwata, M. Aikawa, S. Kusuzaki, S. Handa, Y. Shinozaki and H. Mori. Electrophysiologic and blood-flow responses in the endocardium and epicardium to disopyramide and MS-551 during myocardial ischemia in the dog. JOURNAL-OF-CARDIOVASCULAR-PHARMACOLOGY. 34:275-286, 1999.
The aim of this study was to determine whether a quantitative relation exists between changes in regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) and those in electrophysiologic determinants recorded via left ventricular endocardial and epicardial bipolar electrograms after administration of disopyramide (DP) and a class III antiarrhythmic drug, MS-551 (MS), during myocardial ischemia in the dog. Dogs were given DP (1 mg/kg, i.v., n = 14), MS (1 mg/kg, i.v., and 0.1 mg/kg/min, d.i.v., n = 13), or saline (n = 12). The effective refractory period (ERP) was determined by an S-1-S-2 extrastimulus method, and RMBF by a nonradioactive microsphere technique. The duration of regional electrograms (DRE) was measured as an indicator of conduction time in the myocardium. DP blunted ischemia-induced shortening of ERPs and lengthened DREs at the endocardial and epicardial sites, with a greater effect seen epicardially (p < 0.01 each). DP reduced RMBF, especially at the endocardial surfaces of the ischemic zone (p < 0.05). MS prolonged ERPs at the endocardial and epicardial sites in the ischemic and normal zones (p < 0.05-0.01), but there were no significant differences between the two sites. MS prolonged DREs (p < 0.05), but the magnitude of the prolongation of the DREs was similar to the values in the control group. MS had no effects on RMBF. DP treatment prolonged DREs at both sites in the ischemic zone more markedly than MS or saline treatment (p < 0.01 each). DP reduced RMBF at the endocardial site of the ischemic zone more markedly than MS or saline (p < 0.05 in each). Accordingly, MS prolonged ERPs, but did not increase disparities between endocardial and epicardial sites in the ischemic myocardium, whereas DP had a greater ERP-prolonging effect at the epicardial site than at the endocardial site. DP reduced endocardial RMBF more markedly than epicardial RMBF. These observations suggest that differences in ERPs between endocardial and epicardial ischemic myocardium caused by DP treatment are not due to the difference in RMBF reduction between the two tissue layers, and that DP and MS do not affect the same population of ion channel(s) when ERPs are prolonged.