Zwiener-U, B.-R. W.-B. Effect of severe normocapnic hypoxia on renal function in growth-restricted newborn piglets. AMERICAN-JOURNAL-OF-PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY-INTEGRATIVE-AND-COMPARATIVE-PHYSIOLOGY. 279:R1010-R1016, 2000.
To examine the effects of intrauterine growth restriction and acute severe oxygen deprivation on renal blood flow (RBF), renovascular resistance (RVR), and renal excretory functions in newborns, studies were conducted on 1-day-old anesthetized piglets divided into groups of normal weight (NW, n = 14) and intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR, n = 14) animals. Physiological parameters, RBF, RVR, and urinary flow, were similar in NW and IUGR piglets, but glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and filtration fraction were significantly less in IUGR animals (P< 0.05). An induced 1-h severe hypoxia (arterial PO2 = 19 +/- 4 mmHg) resulted in, for both groups, a pronounced metabolic acidosis, strongly reduced RBF, and increased fractional sodium excretion (FSE; P< 0.05) with a less-pronounced increase of RVR and arterial catecolamines in IUGR piglets. Of significance was a smaller decrease in RBF for IUGR piglets (P< 0.05). Early recovery showed a transient period of diuresis with increased osmotic clearance and elevated FSE in both groups (P< 0.05). However, GFR and renal O-2 delivery remained reduced in NW piglets (P< 0.05). We conclude that, in newborn IUGR piglets, RBF is maintained, although GFR is compromised. Severe hypoxemia induces similar alterations of renal excretion in newborn piglets. However, the less-pronounced RBF reduction during hypoxemia indicates an improved adaptation of newborn IUGR piglets on periods of severely disturbed oxygenation. Furthermore, newborn piglets reestablish the ability for urine concentration and adequate sodium reabsorption early after reoxygenation so that a sustained acute renal failure was prevented.