Zhao, Z. Q., M. Nakamura, N. P. Wang, D. A. Velez, L.-K. O. Hewan, R. A. Guyton and J.-J. Vinten. Dynamic progression of contractile and endothelial dysfunction and infarct extension in the late phase of reperfusion. Journal Of Surgical Research. 94:133-144, 2000.
Background. Myocardial injury during early reperfusion (R) has been well documented. However, the extent and time course of myocardial injury during late R are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of regional contractile and endothelial dysfunction and myocardial blood flow (MBF) defect as well as extension of infarction in association with neutrophil (PMN) actions during R.Materials and methods. A total of 29 dogs underwent a protocol of 1 h LAD ischemia followed by 6, 24, 48, and 72 h of R, respectively. Regional contractile function (sonomicrometry), MBF (colored microspheres), infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining), and PMN localization (immunohistochemistry) were determined.Results. Percentage segmental shortening at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h of R was significantly blunted (-1.8 +/- 1.2,* - 0.37 +/- 0.6,* 0.04 +/- 0.2,* and 5.9 +/- 1.2* vs baseline 17.7 +/- 0.8). MBF (ml/min/g) was attenuated at 24 (0.27 +/- 0.03*), 48 (0.46 +/- 0.07*), and 72 h of R (0.48 +/- 0.06*) vs 6 h of R (0.65 +/- 0.06). Infarct size increased from 6 (27 +/- 2%) to 24 h of R (41 +/- 2%*) with no further increase at 48 and 72 h of R, consistent with a peak of creatine kinase activity. PMN adherence (mm(2) endothelium) to left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) segments was increased after 6 h of R (63 +/- 3*) VS nonischemic left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) segments (42 +/- 2) with a peak at 48 h of R (111 +/- 5*). Endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in the LAD was also blunted at 6, 24, and 48 h of R. Immunostaining revealed CD18-positive PMNs were mainly accumulated in intravascular space during 6 h of R with an increase in migration of PMNs seen at 24 h of R, consistent with a peak of myeloperoxidase release. Myeloperoxidase activity in a given area at risk sample was significantly correlated with infarct extension during the first 24 h of R.Conclusions. These results provide pathologic evidence for myocardial injury during the extended R and a basis for exploration of interventions designed to limit myocardial injury after ischemia. (*P < 0.05 vs Baseline, 6 h of R and LCX segments.) (C) 2000 Academic Press.