Hoefer, I. E., N. van-Royen, J. E. Rectenwald, E. J. Bray, Z. Abouhamze, L. L. Moldawer, M. Voskuil, J. J. Piek, I. R. Buschmann and C. K. Ozaki. Direct evidence for tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling in arteriogenesis. CIRCULATION. 105:1639-1641, 2002.

Background-Arteriogenesis serves as an efficient mechanism for flow restoration after arterial occlusion. This process is associated with inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), although their role in arteriogenesis remains unclear. We hypothesized that arteriogenesis is reduced in mice lacking functional TNF-alpha or p55 receptor. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel microsphere-based murine model of hindlimb perfusion measurement. Methods and Results-Unilateral femoral arteries of nude (n=9), TNF-alpha(-/-) (n=9), TNF-alpha receptor p55(-/-) (n=8), and p75(-/-) (n=8) mice as well as their appropriate genetic back-round controls were occluded. The nude mice underwent laser Doppler hindlimb flux measurements preoperatively, postoperatively, and after 7 days. Seven days after ligation, all animals underwent tissue perfusion determinations using fluorescent microspheres. Laser Doppler findings confirmed acute decrease in flux with falsely normal values after I week. Microsphere results from control mice showed perfusion restoration to values approximate to50% of normal within 7 days. TNF-alpha(-/-) mice demonstrated a significant reduction (45.1%) in collateral artery perfusion compared with controls (TNF-alpha(-/-) 22.4+/-5.1% versus B6x129 49.7+/-9.3%; P<0.01). p55(-/-) mice exhibited an almost identical 45.8% reduction in collateral artery formation (p55(-/-) 28.3+/-4.3% versus C57BL/6J 61.8+/-9.1%; P<0.01), whereas p75(-/-) mice were equivalent to controls (p75(-/-) 54.5+/-5.5%; P=0.13). Conclusions-Microsphere techniques in mice offer a tool for the molecular dissection of arteriogenesis mechanisms. These results suggest that TNF-alpha positively modulates arteriogenesis probably via signaling through its p55 receptor.