Setoyama, K., H. Ota, N. Miura, M. Fujiki, K. Misumi and H. Sakamoto. Effects of milrinone on hemodynamics and regional blood flow in the hypoxic dog. JOURNAL-OF-VETERINARY-MEDICAL-SCIENCE. 64:499-503, 2002.

Milrinone, a therapeutic agent for acute congestive heart failure, has both inotropic and vasodilatory effects, but investigations of these effects of milrinone were almost all conducted under normoxia, and few reports have investigated how milrinone affects the hemodynamics and redistribution of regional blood flow under severe hypoxia. By using colored microspheres, we investigated how milrinone affects hemodynamics and the redistribution of regional blood flow under severe hypoxia. Twelve healthy mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups. The milrinone group was infused with milrinone cumulatively at 25, 75 and 250 mug/kg for 5 min each. The intact group was infused with saline instead of milrinone. We measured the hemodynamics and cerebrum, cerebellum and kidney blood flow in both groups. Both groups were inspired with 10% oxygen. Milrinone induced significant decrease in mean pulmonary artery and pulmonary vascular resistance, compared with the intact group. In both groups slight decreases in mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance and double-product were seen. In regional blood flow, milrinone-induced increases in blood flow were seen in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and especially in the kidneys. Milrinone's vasodilatory effects were Sufficient even under hypoxia. And milrinone increased regional blood flow slightly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, and significantly in the kidneys. These results suggested that milrinone protects against hypoxia-induced organ damage especially in the kidneys. In addition, milrinone is very potent in improving severe congested hemodynamics which complicates. hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.