Strauch, J. T., D. Spielvogel, A. Lauten, N. Zhang, S. Rinke, D. Weisz, C. A. Bodian and R. B. Griepp. Optimal temperature for selective cerebral perfusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 130:74-82, 2005.
OBJECTIVE: Although combinations of hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion are used for cerebral protection during arch surgery, there is no consensus regarding the optimal temperature during selective cerebral perfusion. This study explored the effect of different temperatures during selective cerebral perfusion on cerebral metabolism and neurologic outcome. METHODS: In this blinded study, 40 pigs (19-21 kg) were randomized into 4 groups after 30 minutes of hypothermic circulatory arrest at 20 degrees C. During a 60-minute interval of selective cerebral perfusion, with flow regulated to maintain a perfusion pressure of 50 mm Hg, pigs were perfused at 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Fluorescent microspheres enabled calculation of cerebral blood flow during perfusion and recovery. Hemodynamics, intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular resistance, and oxygen consumption were also monitored. Behavioral scores were obtained for 7 days after surgery. RESULTS: Cerebral blood flow decreased significantly ( P < .002) during cooling in all groups: it was significantly higher throughout selective cerebral perfusion in the 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C versus the 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C group ( P = .0001) and remained higher during recovery ( P = .0001). Oxygen consumption decreased significantly with cooling ( P = .0001), remained low during perfusion, and rebounded with rewarming but was significantly lower at 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C than at 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C throughout selective cerebral perfusion ( P = .003) and after CPB was discontinued ( P = .001). Postoperative behavioral scores were significantly better after selective cerebral perfusion at 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C than at 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C ( P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that selective cerebral perfusion at 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C provides better cerebral protection than selective cerebral perfusion at 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C, even though oxygen consumption remains low for hours after selective cerebral perfusion at 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C. Prompt return of metabolism to baseline levels after hypothermic circulatory arrest/selective cerebral perfusion does not necessarily predict superior behavioral outcome.